Chapter 2, Scalar Data
Chapter 3, Arrays and List Data
Chapter 4, Control Structures
Chapter 5, Hashes
Chapter 6, Basic I/O
Chapter 7, Regular Expressions
Chapter 8, Functions
Chapter 9, Miscellaneous Control Structures
Chapter 10, Filehandles and File Tests
Chapter 11, Formats
Chapter 12, Directory Access
Chapter 13, File and Directory Manipulation
Chapter 14, Process Management
Chapter 15, Other Data Transformation
Chapter 16, System Database Access
Chapter 17, User Database Manipulation
Chapter 18, Converting Other Languages to Perl
Chapter 19, CGI Programming
This appendix gives the answers for the exercises found at the end of each chapter.
$pi = 3.141592654; $result = 2 * $pi * 12.5; print "radius 12.5 is circumference $result\n";
First, we give a constant value ([pi]) to the scalar variable
$pi. Next, we compute the circumference using this value of
$pi in an expression. Finally, we print the result using a string containing a reference to the result.
print "What is the radius: "; chomp($radius = <STDIN>); $pi = 3.141592654; $result = 2 * $pi * $radius; print "radius $radius is circumference $result\n";
This is similar to the previous exercise, but here we've asked the person running the program for a value, using a
<STDIN> operator to read a line from the terminal.
If we had left off the
chomp, we'd get a newline in the middle of the displayed string at the end. It's important to get that newline off the string as soon as we can.
print "First number: "; chomp($a = <STDIN>); print "Second number: "; chomp($b = <STDIN>); $c = $a * $b; print "Answer is $c.\n";
The first line does three things: prompts you with a message, reads a line from standard input, and then gets rid of the inevitable newline at the end of the string. Note that since we are using the value of
$a strictly as a number, we can omit the
chomp here, because
45\n is 45 when used numerically. However, such careless programming would likely come back to haunt us later on (for example, if we were to include
$a in a message).
The second line does the same thing for the second number and places it into the scalar variable
The third line multiplies the two numbers together and prints the result. Note the newline at the end of the string here, contrasted with its absence in the first two lines. The first two messages are prompts, for which user input was desired on the same line. This last message is a complete statement; if we had left the newline out of the string, the shell prompt would appear immediately after the message. Not very cool.
print "String: "; $a = <STDIN>; print "Number of times: "; chomp($b = <STDIN>); $c = $a x $b; print "The result is:\n$c";
Like the previous exercise, the first two lines ask for, and accept, values for the two variables. Unlike the previous exercise, we don't chomp the newline from the end of the string, because we need it! The third line takes the two entered values and performs a string repetition on them, then displays the answer. Note that the interpolation of
$c is not followed by a newline, because we believe that
$c will always end in a newline anyway.